Thursday, February 21, 2019
Notes Apush Chapter 16 a People and a Nation
Chapter 16 reconstructive memory An rough Revolution, 1865-1877 I. Introduction The end of the urbane War brought profound changes to the United States. Reconstruction changed some things, but it did little regarding complaisant equality and political turmoil. In the end, the presidency established opaque vote, but this reform proved low to remake the south close or to guarantee human disciplines. II. Wartime Reconstruction A. capital of Nebraskas 10 Percent curriculum Lincoln planned for a swift and moderate Reconstruction process.Under his 10 Percent Plan, he proposed that as soon as 10 percent of the voting population in the 1860 election took an oath and established a government, it would be recognized. Replaced majority with liege rule, promised pardons to ex-confeds B. relative and the Wade-Davis Bill Congress was not happy Lincoln didnt consult them. Responding negatively to Lincolns Reconstruction plan, Thaddeus Stevens advocated a conquered res publica theory, the confederation waged war as a foreign nation, thus, they should be interact like one, and Charles Sumner advanced a give tongue to suicide theory.In July 1864, Congress swirled the Wade-Davis beat by which the process of readmission to the labor union was to be harsh and slow. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill. Wade-David Bill- To reenter the Union 1. A majority of washrag males had to participate in government 2. To voter turnout or be a delegate in Constitutional conventions they had to construct an ironclad (oath saying they never tolerateed the confederacy) 3. All ranks above lieutenant couldnt become citizens of the United States C. Thirteenth Amendment and the Freedmens Bureau Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment on January 31, 1865.On March 3, 1865, Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands to wait on southerly refugees- provided food, medical services, schooling, and jobs for refugees. Petitions were started by women and the pub lic, the amendment outlawed involuntary slavery and verbalise the govnt couldnt change it The undercoatscape was in ruins along with the economy, some(prenominal) families faced starvation III. The Meanings of Freedom A. The Feel of Freedom Many reason slaves began to explore emancipation by searching for family members or exercising their rightly of mobility. Others reacted more cautiously.Most settled as failers on their former farms or grove but attempted to control the conditions of their labor. B. Reunion of African American Families Relying on the black community in the South, thousands of former slaves began odysseys to find family members. Ads were put in the papers. C. Blacks Search for Independence Many blacks tried to avoid contact with tyrannic whites by abandoning their slave quarters and relocating their houses. Some even established all-black settlements. They cute the sense of freedom D. African Americans Desire for LandNext to freedom, blacks wanted lan d close to of all. Since they could not secure solid support in the North, however, few obtained their fantasy of independence. Blacks were given land but President Johnson took it away and gave it back to the Whites. They wanted a secure promise the land would still be theirs after(prenominal) they cultivated it E. The Black Embrace of Education Many African Americans thirstily sought an education. They paid $1-1. 50 a month for education if needed. They unfeignedly wanted to learn. Federal aid and northern charity helped start thousands of schools for freedmen in the South.Many black leadership were very well educated they established umpteen universities and colleges alongside the whites. F. Growth of Black Churches In an effort to gain more independence from whites, African Americans established their take church servicees, which became the social center of their refreshed freedom. Black establishments used to be hidden now they could freely worship. The church was the wealthiest institution in Black life. G. Rise of the Sharecropping System Blacks could not abbreviate credit, and sharecropping became widespread.Sharecropping was where the landowner would receive payment by the crop grown on their land, usually half would be given to them and the early(a) half would be for the black farmer. Owners often cheated their tenants. The main crop was cotton which lost its order IV. Johnsons Reconstruction Plan A. Who Was Andrew Johnson? Johnson was the only senator from a seceded state (Tennessee) who refused to amount his state out of the Union. At heart he was really a Jacksonian Democrat, not a republican. He believed in limited government and was a white supremacist. As a senator he favored the diminished farmers over the aristocrats. B.Johnsons Leniency and Racial Views Johnsons belief that black suffrage could never be imposed on a southern state by the federal government put him on a collision course with the Radical republicans. C. Johnson s Pardon Policy Johnson hoped to entertain prewar leaders from participating in the Reconstructed South. Nevertheless, he end up pardoning most of them and thus restored the old elite. People had to apply this instant to Johnson for pardoning. He appointed his own governors to have the old ones out of power. that southerners who took the oath of loyalty could vote for or against reconstructive memory so in that location was little opposition in the votes.Unpardoned men and former slave couldnt vote. Many former elites were returned into power, even the VP of the confederacy D. Black Codes Johnsons pardons override many republicans, but the discriminatory black codes revealed the depth of southern defiance. Blacks had to lodge by the rules of their landowners, almost returning them to their slave status. V. The Congressional Reconstruction Plan Congress had the power of admission of states. They believed they had the right to change and alter the reconstructive memory plans. What was the relationship between the South and Union now that the war happened?Conservatives believed that the South was conquered and it was subject to the rule of the conquering country. A. The Radicals The Radicals wanted to transform the South, and they were willing to expel it from the Union until they had achieved their goal. By refusing to work with conservative and moderate Republicans, Johnson and the Democrats forced them to work with the Radicals. B. Congress Wrests Control from Johnson Congress worked to extend the Freedmens Bureau and to pass a courteous rights law counterchecking the black codes. Johnson vetoed these bills, ending hopes of compromise.This showed Johnsons own racism against colored people C. The Fourteenth Amendment This amendment gave citizenship to freedmen, prohibited states from interfering with integral rights, declared the Confederate war debt null and void, barred Confederate leaders from holding state and federal office, and punished any st ate that certified extension of the right to vote to black men. This was a major go bad in African American rights. It excluded women altogether in the right to vote and gained much protest from womens rights groups. D. The Souths and Johnsons Defiance, 1866At the acantha of President Johnson, all southern states except Tennessee rejected the Fourteenth Amendment. Having win overwhelmingly in the 1866 congressional elections, Republicans decided to form new southern state governments. Johnson personally went and spoke about how Radicals were traitors for taking over reconstruction E. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867-1868 Congress set up five military districts in the South, guaranteed freedmen the right to vote in elections for state constitutional conventions, required congressional approval of all new state constitutions, and declared that southern states mustiness accept the Fourteenth Amendment.First Reconstruction Act admitted all states back into the Union. F. The bereave ment of Land Redistribution Thaddeus Stevens (radical) failed to win approval for his plan to confiscate and redistribute land in the former Confederate states. G. Constitutional Crisis Congress passed a shape of controversial laws, including the Tenure of Office Act (gave the senate the power to approve changes in the presidents cabinet), by overriding presidential vetoes. Johnson proceeded to take some(prenominal) belligerent steps, including removal of Secretary of War Stanton and giving power to civil governments and the military.These all got vetoed by Johnson then overridden by a 2/3 vote in congress.. Congressional tyranny? H. Impeachment of President Johnson After Johnson withdraw Secretary of War Stanton, Congress impeached the president. This had been tried twice before. Although acquitted in the Senate, Johnson suffered politically. I. Election of 1868 Grant, a supporter of congressional Reconstruction and of black suffrage in the South, won the 1868 presidential elect ion against Horatio Seymour. Republicans supported congressional reconstruction and black suffrage in the South where Democrats supported white command and denounced reconstruction J.Fifteenth Amendment In 1869, Radicals succeeded in passing the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibited denying the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. vote rights of women could still be denied and some other tests could be enacted to deny voting to other groups. With this many saw reconstruction as finished. VI. Reconstruction Politics in the South A. White Resistance Whites in the South resisted Reconstruction. Some denied freedom to their slaves, while others prevented blacks from getting land. B.Black Voters and Emergence of a Southern Republican ships company Thanks to a large black voter turnout and restrictions on prominent Confederates, a new southern Republican Party controlled the state constitutional conventions of 1868-1870. C. Triumph of Republican Gov ernments Republican victory in the South meant that for the first time black citizens gained political office. Southern Republicans worked to build white support for the party. D. Industrialization Republican governments tried to industrialize the South, but high taxes for that purpose drew money away from education and other reforms.E. Republican Policies on Racial Equality Economic progress remained uppermost in the minds of most southern blacks. They accepted segregated facilities in return for other opportunities. F. The Myth of Negro Rule Southern Conservatives used economic and social pressure on blacks as well as inflammatory racist propaganda to undermine congressional Reconstruction. G. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags In their propaganda, Conservatives labeled northerners seeking economic hazard as carpetbaggers and white southerners who supported the Republicans as scalawags. H. Tax Policy and degeneration as governmental Wedges Although an increase in taxes was necessary just to maintain traditional services, Republican tax policies aroused strong opposition. The corruption with which Republicans were aerated was often true. I. Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan terrorized black leaders in an effort to curb their support for the Republicans. J. Failure of Reconstruction A number of things brought about the collapse of the Republican regimes, forcing them out of office before they instituted social and economic reforms. VII.Reconstruction Reversed A. Political Implications of Klan Terrorism Congress passed two Enforcement Acts in 1870 and 1871 in an effort to counteract Klan violence. The laws were enforced selectively. Congressional opponents of these laws charged that Congress was infringing on states rights. B. The Liberal Republican Revolt Although Grant won reelection in 1872, the revolt of the Liberal Republicans in conjunction with opposition from the Democrats reinforced Grants desire to avoid confrontation with white southerners. C. A General Am nestyIn 1872, Congress offered amnesty to most remaining former Confederates, and in 1875 it offered a watered-down Civil Rights Act that the autonomous Court eventually struck down. D. Reconciliation and Industrial Expansion twain industrialization and immigration surged in the years immediately after the Civil War. Then came the Panic of 1873. E. Greenbacks Versus Sound Money Many Americans wanted to keep greenbacks in circulation, but Grant, along with many Congressmen, industrialists, and financiers, supported sound money. F. juridical Retreat from ReconstructionSupreme Court decisions, by narrowing the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment and by denying equal rights, encouraged the northern retreat from Reconstruction. G. Disputed Election of 1876 and the compromise of 1877 The disputed election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden resulted in the Compromise of 1877, efficaciously ending Reconstruction in the South. H. Betrayal of Black Rights and the Exodusters Ten s of thousands of southern African Americans felt betrayed by the election of 1876 and decided to leave the South where they could no longer hope for equal rights.